# Counting in Blackjack

Blackjack is a game in which the players compete against the dealer to make the best hand of cards. The player must bet before the cards are dealt, and minimum and maximum bets are usually posted on the table. After all bets are placed, the dealer deals two cards to each player. The player must then decide whether to hit (receive more cards) or stand (keep the current hand). The goal of a good blackjack strategy is to beat the dealer by getting closer to 21 than he does.

The Ace is the most versatile card in blackjack because it can be worth 1 or 11 points, depending on what the player does with it. The most common strategy is to split against 2 through 8, and to stand against a dealer’s ace. If the player has a pair of aces, they may also choose to double down. Doubling down increases the bet size to the total of their original bet and pays out 2-1 if the dealer has blackjack.

Casinos have one edge in blackjack, because they win whenever a player busts. But players can overcome that by making the right decisions at the right times, especially when they stand with a hand value of 16 or higher against the dealer’s up card of 7 or greater.

Blackjack’s place as a gambling classic was sealed in the 1950s, when several mathematicians developed an optimal strategy for playing the game. This was a game-changing development, as it proved that smart, disciplined players could beat the casino. The initial panic of casino managers quickly turned to wariness, as they realized that not all players were so smart or so disciplined.

In modern casinos, blackjack is often played with a mixed stack of cards coming from multiple decks that have been shuffled and cut into equal parts. This complicates the probability computation, since the number of cards of each value x in the remaining stack changes with each card dealt. However, a mathematical approach known as counting can help simplify the process and reduce the house edge.

Counting is not easy, and the process can be slow, labor-intensive, and error-prone. It also requires extensive knowledge of the rules of blackjack, including basic strategy and the subtleties of game theory. Even so, it remains the most powerful tool available for reducing the house edge.

Casino competition has diminished blackjack’s popularity in recent years, as players have discovered the benefits of baccarat and other games that offer lower house edges. But the game has regained some momentum with younger gamblers, and it continues to be the most popular casino game overall in America.